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EXIOMOD is an economic model able to measure the environmental impact of economic activities. As a multisector model, it accounts for the economic dependency between sectors. It is also a global and multi-country model with a consistent trade linking between countries at the commodity level. Based on national account data, it can provide compressive scenarios regarding the evolution of key economic variables such as GDP, value-added, turn-over, (intermediary and final) consumption, investment, employment, trade (exports and imports), public spending or taxes. Thanks to its environmental extensions, it makes the link between the economic activities of various agents (sectors, consumers) and


EMPIRE is a comprehensive power system model including generation, storage, and transmission capacity expansion. It is designed to determine optimal capacity investments under operational uncertainty, while also incorporating long- and short-term dynamics.To achieve these objectives, EMPIRE is a stochastic linear program endogenously considering uncertainty on an hourly operational resolution of (1) nationally aggregated load and (2) availability of variable renewable supply. The model considers net transfer capacity (NTC) of power exchange between countries, up-ramping constraints for generators and investment and operation of storage technologies. EMPIRE has three key advantages in contrast to other power sector models. The first is the


REMES is a Computable General Equilibrium model that represents the Norwegian economy with a particular focus on the energy system. REMES is used to study the effects of macroeconomic policies on the Norwegian economy. The model splits the national economy into five regions, which coincide with the five Norwegian energy market zonal prices. It includes 36 production sectors and 32 products and considers demand from households, investors and government alongside international imports and exports. . Policies are modeled as shocks, which influence the economy by means of taxes or subsidies. Effects are considered on prices, activity levels exports, imports and technology

Case Study 2 – Communities of Actors

The concept of optimizing local PV self-generation and consumption on ‘prosumers’ level is already well established in many European countries. Recently, a further development of this concept beyond individual prosumer boundaries to neighbourhood and district level has been triggered not least by the ‘EC Clean Energy Package’ (the establishment of energy communities and further ‘democratization’ of the energy system is explicitly mentioned). Moreover, favourable amendment of legislation and regulations in this context have been made in some European countries (e.g. Germany, Austria). Baseline: Participation is on a voluntary basis: fully democratic participation, considering the individual needs of the actors Diversity


Hydropower is the most important power production resource in Norway, and the country has approximately half of Europe’s reservoir capacity. Ca 85 TWh of storage capacity is distributed on more than 1000 reservoirs and in a number of cascade-coupled river systems. Long term optimisation of the use of the water resources is a complex problem that need to consider for example the complexity of the topology as well as the large seasonal and annual variation in inflow to the system. In the future, the flexibility of the hydropower system will be even more useful since the flexibility can be used